Institut de Parasitologie et de Pathologie Tropicale

The main research topics of the Laboratory of Medical Entomology are taxonomy and systematic by both morphological and molecular approaches. At least barcoding region is sequenced for a broad range of species. The comprehensive of complexes and groups of species is of major interest for the lab...

Icone IIKC IIKC is an Interactive Identification Key for Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) females from the western Palaearctic region. The key contents more than 1,000 illustrations (pictures, scheme and distribution maps) and allows identification of more than 100 species. The dedicated website www.iikculicoides.net offers the following services to users: (i) browse the database of characters and species online, (ii) identify online without local install, (iii) download and install the key onto personal computer according to the following operating systems available i.e. Windows XP/Vista/7, MacOsX and Linux.

 NEW!! --- Identification on line ---

 How to cite this key: 

Mathieu, B., Cêtre-Sossah, C., Garros, C., Chavernac, D., Balenghien, T., Carpenter, S., Setier-Rio, M.-L., Vignes-Lebbe, R., Ung, V., Candolfi, E. & Delécolle, J.-C. (2012) Development and validation of IIKC: an interactive identification key for Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) females from the Western Palaearctic region. Parasites & vectors 5, 137. --- Free access article ---

The catalogue of the institutes's reference collection of the species belonging to the genus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) is in process. To date, around 30% of the whole collection representing yet 20,000 specimens had been registred. The last update of the partial catalogue is available...

 Bruno MATHIEU, PhD   

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 Eva KRUPA, PhD student   

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Krupa E. et al.Diapause characterisation and seasonality of Aedes japonicus japonicus (Diptera, Culicidae) in the northeast of France. Parasite, 2021, 28: 45. DOI Link
Martínez-de la Puente J. et al.Culicoides imicola (Biting Midge). Trends in Parasitology, 2021 DOI Link


Balenghien T. et al., VectorNet Data Series 3: Culicoides Abundance Distribution Models for Europe and Surrounding Regions. Open Health Data, 2020, 7: 2. PubMed Link
Belkharchouche M. et al., Update of the Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) species checklist from Algeria with 10 new records. Parasit. Vectors, 2020, 13: 463. PubMed Link
Cuéllar A. et al., Modelling the monthly abundance of Culicoides biting midges in nine European countries using Random Forests machine learning. Parasit. Vectors, 2020, 13: 194. PubMed Link
Greigert V. et al., The Trick of the Hedgehog: Case Report and Short Review About Archaeopsylla erinacei (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) in Human Health. J. Med. Entomol., 2020, 57: 318-323. PubMed Link
Krupa E. et al., ‹Asian tiger mosquito progression in France : cross-border surveillance in Grand-Est region› Revue Francophone des Laboratoires, 2020, 2020: 53-61. PubMed Link
Mathieu B. et al., A phylogenetic analysis of the biting midges belonging to Culicoides Latreille (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) subgenus Avaritia using molecular data. Parasit. Vectors, 2020, 13: 243. PubMed Link
Mignotte A. et al., The tree that hides the forest: cryptic diversity and phylogenetic relationships in the Palaearctic vector Obsoletus/Scoticus Complex (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) at the European level. Parasit. Vectors, 2020, 13: 265. PubMed Link
Schaffner F. & Mathieu B., ‹Identifying a mosquito: traditional morphology and new molecular techniques associated for integrated taxonomy› Revue Francophone des Laboratoires, 2020, 2020: 24-33. PubMed Link


Rossi S. et al., Red deer (Cervus elaphus) Did Not Play the Role of Maintenance Host for Bluetongue Virus in France: The Burden of Proof by Long-Term Wildlife Monitoring and Culicoides Snapshots. Viruses, 2019, 11: 903. PubMed Link


Cuéllar A. et al., Monthly variation in the probability of presence of adult Culicoides populations in nine European countries and the implications for targeted surveillance. Parasit. Vectors, 2018, 11: 608. PubMed Link
Cuéllar A. et al., Spatial and temporal variation in the abundance of Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in nine European countries. Parasit. Vectors, 2018, 11: 112. PubMed Link
Pudar D. et al., An update of the Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) checklist for the Balkans. Parasit. Vectors, 2018, 11: 462. PubMed Link


Augot D. et al., Molecular phylogeny of 42 species of Culicoides (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae) from three continents. Parasite, 2017, 24: 23. PudMed Link
Bakhoum M.T. et al., Phylogenetic relationships and molecular delimitation of Culicoides Latreille (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) species in the Afrotropical region: interest for the Avaritia subgenus. Systematic Entomology, 2017 [in press].
Sarvasova A. et al., Description of Culicoides (Culicoides) bysta n. sp., a new member of the Pulicaris group (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) from Slovakia Parasit. Vectors, 2017, 10: 279 PudMed Link
Ségard A. et al., Schmallenberg virus in Culicoides Latreille (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) populations in France during 2011-2012 outbreak. Transbound. Emerg. Dis., august 15, 2017. PudMed Link


Sarvasova A. et al., First insights into indoor and outdoor Culicoides activity related to the risk period for Bluetongue virus transmission in Eastern Slovakia. Acta Parasitol., 2016, 61: 743–55 DOI Link
Harrup L. et al., DNA barcoding and surveillance sampling strategies for Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in southern India. Parasit. Vectors, 2016, 9: 461. PudMed Link
Slama D. et al., Culicoides Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) Fauna in Central Tunisia. Entomol. Ornithol. Herpetol., 2016, 5. DOI Link


Jacquet S. et al., Colonization of the Mediterranean Basin by the vector biting midge species Culicoides imicola: an old story Mol. Ecol., 2015 Oct 13. [Epub ahead of print] PudMed Link
Hadj-Henni L. et al., Taxonomic assessment of Culicoides brunnicans, C. santonicus and C. vexans (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in France: Implications in systematics. Infect. Genet. Evol., 2015, 33: 324-31. PudMed Link
Dominiak P. & Mathieu B., Serromyia diabolica , a new biting midge species from Lebanon (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). Zootaxa, 2015, 3946: 436–44. PudMed Link
Desvars A. et al., First overview of the Culicoides Latreille (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) livestock associated species of Reunion Island, Indian Ocean. Acta Trop., 2015, 142: 5–19. PudMed Link
Fall M. et al., Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) midges, the vectors of African horse sickness virus – a host/vector contact study in the Niayes area of Senegal. Parasit. Vectors, 2015, 8: 39. PudMed Link


Bounamous A. et al., Limits of a rapid identification of common Mediterranean sandflies using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, 2014, 109: 466–72. PubMed Link
Balenghien T. et al., The emergence of Schmallenberg virus across Culicoides communities and ecosystems in Europe. Prev. Vet. Med., 2014, 116: 360–9. PudMed Link
Garros C. et al., Towards the PCR-based identification of Palaearctic Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae): results from an international ring trial targeting four species of the subgenus Avaritia. Parasit. Vectors, 2014, 7: 223. PudMed Link
Sarvasova A. et al., Morphological and molecular analysis of the genus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in Slovakia with five new records. Zootaxa, 2014, 3872: 541-60. PudMed Link
Slama D. et al., Biting midges monitoring (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae: Culicoides Latreille) in the governate of Monastir (Tunisia): species composition and molecular investigations. Parasitol Res, 2014, 113: 2435-43. PudMed Link
Sprygin A.V. et al., Culicoides biting midges (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae) in various climatic zones of Russia and adjacent lands. J Vector Ecol, 2014, 39: 306-15. DOI Link


Bakhoum M.T. et al., First record of Culicoides oxystoma Kieffer and diversity of species within the Schultzei group of Culicoides Latreille (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) biting midges in Senegal. PLoS ONE, 2013, 8: e84316. PudMed Link
Delécolle J.-C. et al., Description morphologique et moléculaire d'une nouvelle espèce de Culicoides (Avaritia) du Gabon (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae) [in French]. Bull. Soc. Entomol. de France, 2013, 118: 513-9. Lien Article
Ramilo D. et al., Description of Culicoides paradoxalis sp. nov. from France and Portugal (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). Zootaxa, 2013, 3745: 243-56. PudMed Link
Rigot T. et al., Farms, pastures and woodlands: the fine-scale distribution of Palearctic Culicoides spp. biting midges along an agro-ecological gradient. Med. Vet. Entomol., 2013, 27: 29-38. PudMed Link


Mathieu B. et al., Development and validation of IIKC: an interactive identification key for Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) females from the Western Palaearctic region. Parasit Vectors, 2012, 5: 137. PudMed Link
Romon P. et al., Phenology and attraction of potential Culicoides vectors of bluetongue virus in Basque Country (northern Spain). Vet Parasitol , 2012, 186: 415–24. PudMed Link
Ramilo D.W. et al., First report of 13 species of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in mainland Portugal and Azores by morphological and molecular characterization. PloS One, 2012, 7: e34896. PudMed Link
Vénail R. et al., Assessing diversity and abundance of vector populations at a national scale: example of Culicoides surveillance in France after bluetongue virus emergence. In: Parasitol Res Monograph, edited by Mehlhorn H. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, 2012, p. 77–102. Lien DOI


Balenghien T. et al., Bluetongue - report on entomological surveillance in France in 2010 [in French]. Bull. Epidémiologique Hebd., 2011, 45: 26–31.
Jori F. et al., Orbiviruses in Rusa deer, Mauritius, 2007. Emerg Infect Dis, 2011, 17: 312-3. PudMed Link
Mathieu B. et al., Simultaneous quantification of the relative abundance of species complex members: application to Culicoides obsoletus and Culicoides scoticus (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), potential vectors of bluetongue virus. Vet Parasitol, 2011, 182: 297-306. PudMed Link
Ninio C. et al., Contribution to the knowledge of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) host preferences in France. Parasitol. Res., 2011, 108: 657–63. PudMed Link
Vénail R. et al., Laboratory and field-based tests of deltamethrin insecticides against adult Culicoides biting midges. J Med Entomol, 2011, 48: 351–7. PudMed Link
Viennet E. et al., Assessment of vector/host contact: comparison of animal-baited traps and UV-light/suction trap for collecting Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), vectors of Orbiviruses. Parasit Vectors, 2011, 4: 119. PudMed Link


Balenghien T. et al., The surveillance of Culicoides in France [in French]. Bull. Epidémiologique Hebd., 2010, 35: 8–9.
Garros C. et al., Suggesting synonymies? Comments on Kiehl et al. (2009) "the European vectors of Bluetongue virus: are there species complexes, single species or races in Culicoides obsoletus and C. pulicaris detectable by sequencing ITS-1, ITS-2 and 18S-rDNA?" Parasitol Res, 2010, 107: 731-4. PudMed Link
Ninio C. et al., Contribution to the knowledge of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) host preferences in France. Parasitol Res, 2010, 108: 657-63. PudMed Link


Balenghien T. et al.Culicoides diversity and dynamics in France. Proc. 5th Int. Congr. Vector Ecol. Antalya Turk. , 2009.
Casati S. et al., An investigation on the Culicoides species composition at seven sites in southern Switzerland. Med Vet Entomol, 2009, 23: 93-8. PudMed Link
Mathieu B. et al., The Culicoides vectors of Bluetongue [in French]. In: La fièvre catarrhale ovine, edited by Gourreau JM. Guides France Agricole, 2009a, p. 58–71.
Mathieu B. et al., Towards an online key for morphological identification of palaearctic Culicoides species. Rev. Élev Méd Vét Pays Trop, 2009b, 62: 100.
Mathieu B. et al., What is knew about the Culicoides identification freeware? Rev. Élev Méd Vét Pays Trop, 2009c, 62: 128.
Vénail R. et al., World Health Organisation test applied on Culicoides: a multicentric study. Rev. Élev Méd Vét Pays Trop, 2009, 62: 132.


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